Melatonin

R350.00

Insomnia and improving sleep in different conditions

Melatonin

R350.00

SKU: d1e6483e494a-1-2 Category: Tags: , ,

Scientific Name: (5-Methoxy-N-Acetyltryptamine) – Melatonin
Clinical Test Expectation: Insomnia and improving sleep in different conditions
MG Strength:  10 mg per vial

Detailed Product Information

Overview Information

Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Melatonin used as medicine is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It is most commonly available in pill form, but melatonin is also available in forms that can be placed in the cheek or under the tongue. This allows the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.

Some people take melatonin by mouth to adjust the body’s internal clock. Melatonin is most commonly used for insomnia and improving sleep in different conditions. For example, it is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping people establish a day and night cycle.

Uses of Melatonin

Likely Effective for

  • Trouble falling asleep at a conventional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome). Taking melatonin by mouth appears to reduce the length of time needed to fall asleep in young adults and children who have trouble falling asleep. However, within one year of stopping treatment, this sleeping problem seems to return.
  • Non-24-hour sleep wake disorder. Taking melatonin at bedtime seems to improve sleep in children and adults who are blind.

Possibly Effective for

  • Sleep disturbance caused by certain blood pressure medicine (beta blocker-induced insomnia). Beta-blocker drugs, such as atenolol and propranolol, are a class of drugs that seem to lower melatonin levels. This might cause problems sleeping. Research shows that taking a melatonin supplement might reduce problems sleeping in patients taking beta-blocker drugs.
  • A painful uterine disorder (endometriosis). Taking melatonin daily for 8 weeks seems to reduce pain and painkiller use in women with endometriosis. It also reduces pain during menstruation, intercourse, and while going to the bathroom.
  • High blood pressure. Taking the controlled-release form of melatonin before bedtime seems to lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Immediate-release formulations do not seem to work.
  • Insomnia. Taking melatonin short-term seems to shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep in people with insomnia, but only by about 7-12 minutes. Melatonin might also increase the amount of time that a person with insomnia spends sleeping. But results are conflicting, and any benefit is small at best. Some people say melatonin makes them sleep better, even though tests do not agree. There is some evidence that melatonin is more likely to help older people than younger people or children. This may be because older people have less melatonin in their bodies to start with. There is also interest using melatonin for people with insomnia and other conditions. Research shows that melatonin might improve sleeping trouble related to conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism, developmental disabilities, and intellectual disabilities. But it’s unclear if melatonin improves sleep problems in people with Alzheimer disease, dementia, Parkinson disease, traumatic brain injury, substance use disorders, or in people undergoing dialysis.
  • Jet lag. Most research shows that melatonin can improve certain symptoms of jet lag such as alertness and movement coordination. Melatonin also seems to slightly improve other jet lag symptoms such as daytime sleepiness and tiredness. But, melatonin might not be effective for shortening the time it takes for people with jet lag to fall asleep.
  • Anxiety before surgery. Melatonin used under the tongue seems to be as effective at reducing anxiety before surgery as midazolam, a conventional medication. It also seems to have fewer side effects in some people. Taking melatonin by mouth also seems to reduce anxiety before surgery, although some conflicting evidence exists. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before sevoflurane anesthesia reduces agitation after surgery.
  • Tumors without cysts or liquid (solid tumors). Taking high doses of melatonin with chemotherapy or other cancer treatments might reduce tumor size and improve survival rates in people with tumors.
  • Sunburn. Applying melatonin gel to the skin before sun exposure seems to prevent sunburn. Applying melatonin cream to the skin before sun exposure seems to help people that are very sensitive to sunlight. But melatonin cream might not prevent sunburn in people with less sensitive skin.
  • A group of painful conditions that affect the jaw joint and muscle (temporomandibular disorders or TMD). Research suggests that taking melatonin at bedtime for 4 weeks reduces pain by 44% and increases tolerance to pain by 39% in women with jaw pain.
  • Low levels of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia). Taking melatonin by mouth can improve low blood platelet counts associated with cancer, cancer treatment, and other disorders.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Athletic performance. Taking melatonin shortly before resistance exercise or cycling doesn’t appear to improve performance.
  • Involuntary weight loss in people who are very ill (cachexia or wasting syndrome). Research shows that taking melatonin each evening for 28 days does not improve appetite, body weight, or body composition in people with wasting syndrome from cancer.
  • Diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, that interfere with thinking (dementia). Most research shows that taking melatonin does not improve behavior or affect symptoms in people with Alzheimer disease or other forms of memory loss. But taking melatonin might reduce confusion and restlessness when the sun goes down in people with these conditions.
  • Dry mouth. Taking melatonin by mouth and using melatonin as a mouth rinse doesn’t prevent dry mouth in people with head and neck cancer being treated with cancer drugs and radiation.
  • Inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility). Taking melatonin does not appear to improve fertility or pregnancy rates in women undergoing fertility treatments.
  • Sleep disorder due to rotating or night shifts (shift work disorder). Taking melatonin by mouth does not seem to improve sleeping problems in people who do shift work.

Likely InEffective for

  • Withdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines. Some people take benzodiazepines for sleep problems. Long-term use can lead to dependence. Taking melatonin at bedtime doesn’t help people stop taking these drugs.
  • Depression. Although melatonin might improve sleeping problems in people with depression, it does not seem to improve depression itself. There is also some concern that melatonin might worsen symptoms in some people. It is not clear if taking melatonin can prevent depression.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Early research shows that taking melatonin might delay the loss of vision in people with age-related vision loss.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Early research shows that melatonin can reduce the symptoms of eczema in children. However, although melatonin improves sleep quality it does not always can shorten the time it takes for these children to fall asleep.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited research shows that melatonin might reduce insomnia in children with ADHD who are taking stimulants. But improved sleep doesn’t seem to decrease symptoms of ADHD.
  • Autism. Early research shows that taking melatonin may improve aggression or impulsiveness in kids with autism. But taking melatonin doesn’t seem to improve other behaviors.
  • Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Taking melatonin may reduce excessive urination at night in some men with enlarged prostate. But it’s not clear if this improvement is clinically meaningful.
  • Bipolar disorder. Early research shows that taking melatonin at bedtime increases sleep duration and reduces manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who also have insomnia. But there are also concerns that taking melatonin might make symptoms worse in some people with bipolar disorder.
  • Tiredness in people with cancer. Taking melatonin short-term doesn’t seem to improve tiredness or quality of life in people with cancer. It’s unclear if it would be beneficial if used for a longer time.
  • Cataracts. Taking melatonin by mouth before cataract surgery seems to reduces the pain during surgery. It might also reduce pressure in the eye before and during cataract surgery.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Some early research shows that taking melatonin in the evening might improve some symptoms of CFS, including fatigue, concentration, and motivation. However, other early research shows that taking melatonin by mouth does not improve CFS symptoms.
  • A lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin improves shortness of breath in people with COPD. However, it does not seem to improve lung function or exercise capacity.
  • Cluster headache. Taking melatonin 10 mg by mouth every evening might reduce the frequency of cluster headaches. However, lower doses don’t seem to work.
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early research shows that a single dose of melatonin taken by mouth does not improve thinking skills in healthy adults. Other early research shows that applying a cream containing melatonin to the skin for 2 days does not change mental function in healthy adults.
  • Problems with mental function. Taking a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), vitamin E, soy, phospholipids, melatonin, and tryptophan appears to slightly improve mental function and sensitively to smell in older people with some problems with mental function.
  • A mental state in which a person is confused and unable to think clearly. Evidence shows that taking melatonin nightly for 14 days reduces the risk of delirium in older people.
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking melatonin nightly might reduce indigestion in some people. But it doesn’t seem to work as well in people with prior H. pylori infection.
  • Seizure disorder (epilepsy). There is some evidence that taking melatonin at bedtime may reduce the number and length of seizures in children with epilepsy. But higher quality research is needed to confirm.
  • Fibromyalgia. Melatonin might decrease the severity of pain and stiffness in people with fibromyalgia.
  • Persistent heartburn. Taking melatonin daily at bedtime might improve symptoms of acid reflux, including heartburn. However, taking conventional medication seems to be more effective.
  • A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Evidence shows that taking melatonin together with the drug omeprazole improves healing in people with ulcers caused by H. pylori infection.
  • A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Early research shows that taking melatonin might improve some, but not all, symptoms of IBS. Some research shows that melatonin works better in people with IBS in which constipation is the main symptom.
  • Symptoms of menopause. Limited research shows that melatonin does not relieve menopausal symptoms. However, taking melatonin in combination with soy isoflavones might help psychological symptoms associated with menopause.
  • A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Early research shows that taking melatonin reduces blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Migraine. There is some evidence that taking melatonin before bed can prevent episodic migraine headache in adults and children. When headaches do occur, they are milder and pass more quickly. However, other evidence shows that taking melatonin does not reduce the frequency of migraine attacks.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS). Early research shows that taking melatonin doesn’t improve MS symptoms such as fatigue and disability.
  • Heart attack. Early research shows that melatonin injected directly into the vein within 2.5 hours after a heart attack, might decrease damage to the heart.
  • Brain damage in infants caused by lack of oxygen. Early research shows that giving melatonin in addition to cooling-therapy might improve outcomes in infants with brain damage caused by lack of oxygen.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin improves markers of liver function in the blood of people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking melatonin by mouth and using melatonin as a mouth rinse seems to delay mouth ulcers from forming in people getting cancer drugs and radiation. But it might not reduce the number of these people who get mouth ulcers.
  • Low bone mass (osteopenia). Early research in women with low bone mass after menopause suggests that taking melatonin slightly increases bone thickness in the spine and shin but not in other areas.
  • A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Melatonin might improve irregular menstruation in women with PCOS. Taking melatonin seems to increase the number of menstrual cycles over 6 months from 2.5 to 4.
  • Recovery after surgery. Some evidence shows that taking melatonin the night before and one hour before undergoing surgery might reduce pain and drug use after surgery.
  • Changes in heart rate when you move from laying down to sitting up (postural tachycardia syndrome). Early research shows that taking a single dose of melatonin reduces heart rate when you change from sitting to standing. But melatonin does not seem to affect blood pressure or other symptoms.
  • A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Taking melatonin with vitamin B6 might sometimes reduce the need for blood pressure medicines. But it doesn’t seem to improve pre-eclampsia overall.
  • Prostate cancer. Taking melatonin by mouth together with conventional medications might reduce the growth of prostate cancer.
  • Skin damage caused by radiation therapy (radiation dermatitis). In women with breast cancer, applying a specific melatonin emulsion cream to the skin during radiation treatment seems to reduce radiation dermatitis.
  • A sleep disorder in which people act out dreams while sleeping. Some evidence shows that taking melatonin before bed reduces muscle movement during sleep in people with a sleep disorder that involves acting out dreams.
  • A disorder that causes leg discomfort and an irresistible urge to move the legs (restless legs syndrome or RLS). Early research shows that taking melatonin before bedtime might make symptoms worse in people with restless legs syndrome.
  • A disease that causes swelling (inflammation) in body organs, usually the lungs or lymph nodes (sarcoidosis). Early evidence shows that taking melatonin daily for one year followed by a reduced dose for a second year improves lung function and skin problems in people with an inflammatory condition called sarcoidosis.
  • Schizophrenia. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of melatonin on schizophrenia symptoms and side effects related to medications. Some research shows that taking melatonin by mouth for 8 weeks reduces weight gain associated with the use of the drug olanzapine and improves symptoms of schizophrenia. But other research shows that it might not have any benefits and might worsen the side effects of second-generation antipsychotic medications.
  • Seasonal depression (seasonal affective disorder or SAD). Some early research shows that taking melatonin by mouth might reduce depression during the winter in people with SAD. But giving melatonin under the tongue does not seem to improve symptoms.
  • Quitting smoking. Taking melatonin 3.5 hours after quitting smoking seems to reduce anxiety, restlessness, and cigarette cravings.
  • Blood infection (sepsis). There is conflicting research about the effect of melatonin on sepsis in neonates. While some early research shows that giving melatonin in addition to antibiotics improves severity of blood infection, other research shows that melatonin has no effect.
  • Headache characterized by sudden sharp pain (stabbing headache). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin daily might prevent sudden stabbing headaches.
  • Stress. There is some evidence that taking melatonin might improve memory while under stress.
  • A movement disorder often caused by antipsychotic drugs (tardive dyskinesia). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin by mouth decreases symptoms of a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, other evidence shows that taking melatonin daily does not reduce involuntary movements in these patients.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin at night reduces ringing in the ears and improves sleep quality. However, other research shows that it does not reduce ear ringing.
  • A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking melatonin daily in combination with conventional medication seems to help control a type of inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis.
  • Loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence). Early research shows that taking melatonin before bed does not reduce how much children wet their beds at nighttime.
  • Aging.
  • Birth control.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate melatonin for these uses.

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Melatonin is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth short-term. Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately, long-term. Melatonin has been used safely for up to 2 years in some people. However, it can cause some side effects including headache, short-term feelings of depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, and irritability. Do not drive or use machinery for four to five hours after taking melatonin.

When applied to the skin: Melatonin is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied directly to the skin short-term.

When given by IV: Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when injected directly into the body under the supervision of a health care professional.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy: Melatonin is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for women when taken by mouth or injected into the body frequently or in high doses when trying to become pregnant. Melatonin might have effects similar to birth control. This might make it more difficult to become pregnant. There’s not enough reliable information to know if melatonin is safe in lower doses when trying to become pregnant. Some evidence suggests that low doses (2-3 mg daily) might be safe, but additional research is needed to confirm. Not enough is known about the safety of melatonin when used during pregnancy. Until more is known, it’s best not to use melatonin while pregnant or trying to become pregnant.

Breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breast-feeding. It is best not to use it.

Children: Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, short-term. Melatonin is usually well tolerated when taken in doses up to 3 mg per day in children and 5 mg per day in adolescents. There is some concern that melatonin might interfere with development during adolescence. While this still needs to be confirmed, melatonin should be reserved for children with a medical need. There isn’t enough evidence to know if melatonin is safe in children when taken by mouth, long-term.

Bleeding disorders: Melatonin might make bleeding worse in people with bleeding disorders.

Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.

Diabetes: Melatonin might increase blood sugar in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and take melatonin.

High blood pressure: Melatonin can raise blood pressure in people who are taking certain medications to control blood pressure. Avoid using it.

Seizure disorders: Using melatonin might increase the risk of having a seizure.

Transplant recipients: Melatonin can increase immune function and might interfere with immunosuppressive therapy used by people receiving transplants.

Melatonin’s main job in the body is to regulate night and day cycles or sleep-wake cycles. Darkness causes the body to produce more melatonin, which signals the body to prepare for sleep. Light decreases melatonin production and signals the body to prepare for being awake. Some people who have trouble sleeping have low levels of melatonin. It is thought that adding melatonin from supplements might help them sleep.

Interactions

Major Interaction

Do not take this combination

  • Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with MELATONIN

    Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
    Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

  • Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs) interacts with MELATONIN

    The body makes melatonin. Birth control pills seem to increase how much melatonin the body makes. Taking melatonin along with birth control pills might cause too much melatonin to be in the body.
    Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

  • Caffeine interacts with MELATONIN

    Caffeine might decrease melatonin levels in the body. Taking melatonin along with caffeine might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.

  • Fluvoxamine (Luvox) interacts with MELATONIN

    Taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) can increase the amount of melatonin that the body absorbs. Taking melatonin along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin.

  • Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with MELATONIN

    Melatonin might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
    Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

  • Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with MELATONIN

    Melatonin might increase the immune system. Taking melatonin along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
    Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.

  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with MELATONIN

    Melatonin might slow blood clotting. Taking melatonin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
    Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

  • Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) interacts with MELATONIN

    Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) is used to lower blood pressure. Taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of nifedipine GITS for lowering blood pressure.

  • Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines) interacts with MELATONIN

    Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
    Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.

  • Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) interacts with MELATONIN

    The body breaks down melatonin to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase how quickly the body gets rid of melatonin. Taking melatonin along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

  • Flumazenil (Romazicon) interacts with MELATONIN

    Flumazenil (Romazicon) might decrease the effects of melatonin. It is not yet clear why this interaction occurs yet. Taking flumazenil (Romazicon) along with melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.

Dosages

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS
BY MOUTH:

  • For disorders that affect when a person sleeps and when they are awake: 0.5 mg to 5 mg of melatonin taken daily before bedtime for up to 6 years has been used in blind people. Also in blind people, high dose of 10 mg taken an hour before bedtime for up to 9 weeks has also been used. 2-12 mg of melatonin taken at bedtime for up to 4 weeks has been used.
  • For trouble falling asleep at a conventional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome): 0.3 to 5 mg of melatonin daily for up to 9 months has been used.
  • For sleep disturbance caused by certain blood pressure medicine (beta blocker-induced insomnia): 2.5 mg of melatonin taken daily for up to 4 weeks has been used. Single doses of 5 mg of melatonin have also been used.
  • For endometriosis: 10 mg of melatonin daily for 8 weeks has been used.
  • For high blood pressure: 2-3 mg of controlled-release melatonin daily for 4 weeks has been used.
  • For insomnia:
    • For insomnia: 2 mg to 3 mg of melatonin before bedtime for up to 29 weeks has been used in most research. Higher doses of up to 12 mg daily have also been used for shorter durations (up to 4 weeks).
    • For insomnia occurring together with other conditions: 2-12 mg for up to 4 weeks has been used. Lower doses have also been used for up to 24 weeks.
  • For jet lag: 0.5-8 mg of melatonin at bedtime is commonly taken on the day of arrival at the destination, continuing for 2 to 5 days. Low doses of 0.5-3 mg are often used to avoid the side effects of the higher doses.
  • For reducing anxiety before surgery: 3-10 mg of melatonin taken 60-90 minutes before surgery has been used.
  • For tumors without cysts or liquid (solid tumors) in combination with conventional therapy: 10-40 mg of melatonin daily, along with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or interleukin 2 (IL-2), has been used. Melatonin is typically started 7 days before the start of chemotherapy and continued throughout full treatment course. 20 mg of melatonin intravenously daily for 2 months, followed by 10 mg of oral melatonin daily, has also been used.
  • For a group of painful conditions that affect the jaw joint and muscle (temporomandibular disorders or TMD): 5 mg of melatonin at bedtime for 4 weeks has been used.
  • For low levels of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia) associated with cancer chemotherapy: 20-40 mg of melatonin daily beginning up to 7 days before chemotherapy and continuing throughout chemotherapy cycles has been used.

INTRAMUSCULAR (into the muscle):

  • For tumors without cysts or liquid (solid tumors) in combination with conventional therapy: 20 mg of melatonin intramuscularly daily for 2 months, followed by 10 mg of oral melatonin daily, has been used.

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:

  • For sunburn: A gel containing 0.05% to 2.5% melatonin, applied either 15 minutes before or up to 4 hours after sun exposure, has been used. A cream containing 12.5% melatonin, applied to the skin before sun exposure, has been used.

UNDER THE TONGUE:

  • For reducing anxiety before surgery: 5 mg or 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of body weight taken 90-100 minutes before anesthesia has been used.

CHILDREN
BY MOUTH:

  • For disorders that affect when a person sleeps and when they are awake: 0.5-4 mg of melatonin daily for up to 6 years has been used in blind people. 0.5-12 mg of melatonin daily for up to 12 weeks has been used in children and adolescents 3 months to 18 years-old.
  • For trouble falling asleep at a conventional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome): 1-6 mg of melatonin before bedtime for up to one month has been used.
  • For insomnia:
    • For insomnia: 5 mg or 0.05-0.15 mg/kg of body weight taken at bedtime for 4 weeks has been used in children 6-12 years-old with primary insomnia.
    • For insomnia occurring together with other conditions: 6-9 mg of melatonin taken before bedtime for 4 weeks, has been used in children with seizures 3-12 years-old.
  • For reducing anxiety before surgery: 0.05-0.5 mg/kg of body weight has been taken before anesthesia in children 1-14 years-old.

Mixing and our recommended dosage

As above

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