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Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments.
Advantages with nasal systemic drug delivery
The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised.Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules.Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration, by crushing or grinding tablets or capsules and snorting or sniffing the resulting powder, providing a rapid onset of effects. If a fast effect is desired or if the drug is extensively degraded in the gut or liver,drugs which are poorly absorbed orally can also be given by this route.
Limitations with nasal systemic drug delivery
Nasal administration is primarily suitable for potent drugs since only a limited volume can be sprayed into the nasal cavity. Drugs for continuous and frequent administration may be less suitable because of the risk of harmful long-term effects on the nasal epithelium. Nasal administration has also been associated with a high variability in the amount of drug absorbed. Upper airway infections may increase the variability as may the extent of sensory irritation of the nasal mucosa, differences in the amount of liquid spray that is swallowed and not kept in the nasal cavity and differences in the spray actuation process.However, the variability in the amount absorbed after nasal administration should be comparable to that after oral administration.
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